Saturday, October 25, 2014

October 24

Sorry, I guess I forgot to post on the blog yesterday...


I went through a PowerPoint presentation on "The Techniques of Dictatorship". I've posted this presentation on the wiki under Unit 2. Please remember that you're writing your Unit 2 WRA I on Monday, October 27th. You are writing your Chapter 5 Test on Tuesday, October 28th, please see the study guide here. (scroll down to find it)


I started a PowerPoint lecture on the Napoleonic Age today. I'll probably try to finish it on Monday. Also on Monday, I'll be re-teaching how to write a three source analysis assignment because you'll be writing one for me on Wednesday, October 29th. Please remember that your French Revolution DBA assignment is due on Monday. On Monday, November 3rd you'll be writing your Unit 5 Test (The French Revolution and Napoleonic Age), please see the study guide here. (scroll down to find it)

Thursday, October 23, 2014

October 23


You wrote your Economic Systems Exam today. You will get the results back tomorrow. Please check yesterday's post to find out what homework is due tomorrow. You will write your Unit 2 WRA I three source analysis assignment on Monday (we're booked into the Blenheim Room). You are writing your Chapter 5 Test on Tuesday, October 28th. Please see the study guide below.

The Chapter 5 Test will be on Tuesday, October 28th. It is a 70 multiple choice question test. Please review the following:

  • "20th Century Rejections of Liberalism" (ppt)
  • Marx notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Stalin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Soviet Economy notes
  • Soviet Economic System notes
  • Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin notes
  • Gorbachev to Collapse notes
  • Economic Planning in the USSR booklet
  • Characteristics of Democracy
  • Characteristics of Dictatorship
  • Democratic Systems notes
  • Non-Democratic Systems notes
  • Types of Dictatorships notes (includes Techniques of Dictatorships as well)
  • A Comparison of Communism and Fascism notes
  • Totalitarianism notes
  • Fascism/Nazism booklet (has techniques of dictatorship in Nazi Germany and USSR)
  • do a brief review of the political and economic spectrums
The following key concepts/key events/key people are mentioned in this test, if you (re-)familiarize yourself with them it will help you out immensely!

  • centrally planned economies
  • initiative
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • Reaganomics
  • consumer sovereignty
  • invisible hand
  • Keynesian economics
  • laissez faire economics
  • War Communism
  • Five Year Plans
  • mixed economies
  • indicative planning
  • proportional representation
  • democracy
  • dictatorship
  • political spectrum (characteristics associated with the various ideologies)
  • status quo
  • egalitarianism
  • conservative
  • reactionary
  • liberal
  • radical
  • SA
  • Hitler
  • Bolshevik
  • fascism
  • communism
  • indoctrination
  • controlled participation
  • terror and force
  • direction of popular discontent
  • democratic socialists
  • supply-side economics
  • authoritarian
  • tyrant
  • totalitarian
  • totalitarianism
  • ultranationalism
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • propaganda
  • progressive taxation
  • Marx
  • Lenin
  • utopian socialism
  • Gorbachev
  • martial law
  • Reichstag (Reichstag Fire, Reichstag election results)
  • referendum
  • collectivization
  • modernization
  • classical liberal
  • laissez faire free market economy
  • mixed economy
  • planned economy
  • (review your economic political quadrant model)
  • Das Kapital
  • Mein Kampf
  • The Wealth of Nations



We finished watching the History Channel documentary on "The French Revolution" today in class. I went over the 19th century political spectrum today as well. Tomorrow, I will start discussing the Napoleonic Age. Please remember that your French Revolution DBA assignment is due on Monday, October 27th. You will be writing a WRA I three source analysis assignment on Wednesday, October 29th (don't worry, I'll re-teach how to write these). Your Unit 5 Test (French Revolution and Napoleonic Age Test) is on Monday, November 3rd. Please see the study guide below (it's also on the Unit 5 wiki page).





2. Other study tips:
  • know the causes of the French Revolution (short term, long term, economic, political, social, intellectual)
  • know the structure of French society during the Old Regime
  • know Napoleon's domestic policy
  • know Napoleon's foreign policy (Continental System in particular)
  • know key battles in the Napoleonic Wars (results of the Battle of Trafalgar, Russian campaign, the Battle of Leipzig, and the Battle of Waterloo)
  • know chronology of key events in the French Revolution
  • know the chronology of key events in the Napoleonic Age
  • know the key players at the Congress of Vienna (country and representatives)
  • what were the major decisions of the Congress? what were the guiding principles at the Congress of Vienna
  • know the 19th century political spectrum (please see the graphic below; values and characteristics of the various positions on the spectrum; what groups are represented on the various positions on the spectrum?; what phases/accomplishments of the French Revolution are represented on the spectrum?)
3. Study the 19th century political spectrum (click on the graphic to enlarge it)


Wednesday, October 22, 2014

October 22


We watched the A & E Biography of Adolf Hitler today ("The Fatal Attraction of Adolf Hitler"). You have to complete the following homework by Friday's class:

  • read, highlight, annotate "Totalitarianism" (pages 144-145 in your 30-1 study booklets)
  • read, highlight, annotate "Comparison of Communism and Fascism" (page 146)
  • read, highlight, annotate "Core Fascist Values" (page 148)
  • complete the charts on Fascism/Nazism (pages 149-151)
  • complete the chart called "Stalin: Techniques of Totalitarian Control" (page 152)
Please remember that you are writing your Unit 2 WRA I three source analysis assignment on Monday, October 27th. You are writing your Economic Systems Exam tomorrow, please find the study guide below. You are also writing your Chapter 5 Test on Tuesday, October 28th, again, you'll be able to find the study guide below.



This exam will be written on Thursday, October 23rd. It is a multiple choice question format test.
This is a comprehensive exam that covers all of the major economic systems: market economy, mixed economy, and command economy. It is 74 multiple choice questions.
  • Chapters 3-6 in Perspectives on Ideology
  • study the applicable PowerPoint presentations that are on the wiki under Unit 2 (check your notes): The Development of Classical Liberalism, Responding to Classical Liberalism, The Evolution of Modern Liberalism, 20th Century Rejections of Liberalism (just the USSR section of this PowerPoint)
  • In Chapter 5, just focus on the Soviet Union, and left-wing of economic spectrum (command economy), we haven't covered aspects of dictatorships or Nazism yet (the techniques of dictatorship and fascism will be on a Chapter 5 Test)
  • please see the summary notes from the Ideologies textbook: Chapter 7 (Private Enterprise), page 78-80 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • supply-side economics (page 84 in study booklet)
  • boom and bust cycle/business cycle (pages 50-54 and pages 56-62 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • laws of supply and demand, Adam Smith, invisible hand, market forces
    self-interest, consumer sovereignty, competition, private ownership, profit motive
  • basic economic problems/questions
  • advantages/disadvantages of the market economy
  • causes of the Great Depression (pages 63-64 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • please see summary notes from the Ideologies textbook on the Mixed Economy Case Studies #14 (Sweden) and #15 (Canada), #16 (Japan), #17 (Fascism and Nazism): pages 73-76 in the study booklet
  • also see the Democratic Socialism booklet on Sweden (indicative planning, "cradle to the grave" economics/"womb to tomb economics"): pages 65-72 in 30-1 booklets
  • characteristics of a mixed economy
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • democratic socialism
  • welfare capitalism
  • Keynesian economics
  • the business cycle and fiscal and monetary policies (study all of the notes I gave you)
  • demand-side economics
  • neo-conservatives
  • monetarism
  • trickle down economics
  • supply-side economics
  • Thatcherism and Reaganomics
  • Milton Friedman
  • Friedrich Hayek
  • how Keynesian economics deals with a recession (remember "the percolator": increase circulation of money reducing taxes, increase government spending on "make work" projects, and reduce interest rates, which according to Keynesian economics is going increase demand for goods and services and lead to more money circulating in the economy) pages 81-82 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • how supply-side economics deals with a recession (remember "trickle down coffee maker": government should stimulate the goods and services sector of the economy by reducing corporate and personal taxes, eventually benefits will "trickle down" to the middle class and working class, make connections between supply-side economics and laissez faire economics/classical liberalism): pages 81-82 in the 30-1 booklet
  • advantages and disadvantages of a mixed economy
  • neo-conservative criticism of government intervention
  • characteristics of a centrally planned economy
  • advantages and disadvantages of a centrally planned economy
  • Marx notes (pages 94-96 in 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (pages 97-98 in 30-1 booklet)
  • establishment of the Soviet Union
  • Soviet economic system (top-down decision-making process): study pages 105-114 in the Social 30-1 booklet
  • Lenin's War Communism and the New Economic Policy
  • "Stalin and the Modernization of Russia" (see film notes)
  • Stalin notes (pages 99-101)
  • "Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin" notes (this bridges the gap between Stalin and Gorbachev): pages 116-117 in 30-1 booklet
  • Gorbachev to Collapse Notes: pages 118-121 in 30-1 booklet
  • Economic Planning in the USSR: pages 122-129 in 30-1 booklet
  • Market Socialism (pages 130-132 in the Social 30-1 booklet)



The Chapter 5 Test will be on Tuesday, October 28th. It is a 70 multiple choice question test. Please review the following:

  • "20th Century Rejections of Liberalism" (ppt)
  • Marx notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Stalin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Soviet Economy notes
  • Soviet Economic System notes
  • Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin notes
  • Gorbachev to Collapse notes
  • Economic Planning in the USSR booklet
  • Characteristics of Democracy
  • Characteristics of Dictatorship
  • Democratic Systems notes
  • Non-Democratic Systems notes
  • Types of Dictatorships notes (includes Techniques of Dictatorships as well)
  • A Comparison of Communism and Fascism notes
  • Totalitarianism notes
  • Fascism/Nazism booklet (has techniques of dictatorship in Nazi Germany and USSR)
  • do a brief review of the political and economic spectrums

The following key concepts/key events/key people are mentioned in this test, if you (re-)familiarize yourself with them it will help you out immensely!

  • centrally planned economies
  • initiative
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • Reaganomics
  • consumer sovereignty
  • invisible hand
  • Keynesian economics
  • laissez faire economics
  • War Communism
  • Five Year Plans
  • mixed economies
  • indicative planning
  • proportional representation
  • democracy
  • dictatorship
  • political spectrum (characteristics associated with the various ideologies)
  • status quo
  • egalitarianism
  • conservative
  • reactionary
  • liberal
  • radical
  • SA
  • Hitler
  • Bolshevik
  • fascism
  • communism
  • indoctrination
  • controlled participation
  • terror and force
  • direction of popular discontent
  • democratic socialists
  • supply-side economics
  • authoritarian
  • tyrant
  • totalitarian
  • totalitarianism
  • ultranationalism
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • propaganda
  • progressive taxation
  • Marx
  • Lenin
  • utopian socialism
  • Gorbachev
  • martial law
  • Reichstag (Reichstag Fire, Reichstag election results)
  • referendum
  • collectivization
  • modernization
  • classical liberal
  • laissez faire free market economy
  • mixed economy
  • planned economy
  • (review your economic political quadrant model)
  • Das Kapital
  • Mein Kampf
  • The Wealth of Nations



We watched a documentary today from the History Channel on the French Revolution. I also gave you a DBA assignment on the French Revolution. The DBA assignment is due on Monday, October 27th. You will be writing a WRA I three source analysis assignment in class on Wednesday, October 29th. I will re-teach how to write a WRA I three source analysis assignment next week. You will be writing a Unit 5 Test (French Revolution and Napoleonic Age Test) in the first week of November.




2. Other study tips:
  • know the causes of the French Revolution (short term, long term, economic, political, social, intellectual)
  • know the structure of French society during the Old Regime
  • know Napoleon's domestic policy
  • know Napoleon's foreign policy (Continental System in particular)
  • know key battles in the Napoleonic Wars (results of the Battle of Trafalgar, Russian campaign, the Battle of Leipzig, and the Battle of Waterloo)
  • know chronology of key events in the French Revolution
  • know the chronology of key events in the Napoleonic Age
  • know the key players at the Congress of Vienna (country and representatives)
  • what were the major decisions of the Congress? what were the guiding principles at the Congress of Vienna
  • know the 19th century political spectrum (please see the graphic below; values and characteristics of the various positions on the spectrum; what groups are represented on the various positions on the spectrum?; what phases/accomplishments of the French Revolution are represented on the spectrum?)
3. Study the 19th century political spectrum (click on the graphic to enlarge it)



Tuesday, October 21, 2014

October 21


I had you read over the section on democratic systems (pages 134-137) in your Social 30-1 booklets, then I went through non-democratic systems  and types of dictatorships with you. We then went over the three sample WRA I that I distributed to you in class yesterday. I ran out of time both times I did this today. Please be ready for your Unit 2 WRA I on Monday, October 27th. You also have your Economic Systems Exam to worry about this Thursday. Please see the study guide for the Economic Systems Exam below, along with the study guide for the Chapter 5 Test, which you will be writing on Tuesday, October 28th.


This exam will be written on Thursday, October 23rd. It is a multiple choice question format test.
This is a comprehensive exam that covers all of the major economic systems: market economy, mixed economy, and command economy. It is 70 multiple choice questions.
  • Chapters 3-6 in Perspectives on Ideology
  • study the applicable PowerPoint presentations that are on the wiki under Unit 2 (check your notes): The Development of Classical Liberalism, Responding to Classical Liberalism, The Evolution of Modern Liberalism, 20th Century Rejections of Liberalism (just the USSR section of this PowerPoint)
  • In Chapter 5, just focus on the Soviet Union, and left-wing of economic spectrum (command economy), we haven't covered aspects of dictatorships or Nazism yet (the techniques of dictatorship and fascism will be on a Chapter 5 Test)
  • please see the summary notes from the Ideologies textbook: Chapter 7 (Private Enterprise), page 78-80 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • supply-side economics (page 84 in study booklet)
  • boom and bust cycle/business cycle (pages 50-54 and pages 56-62 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • laws of supply and demand, Adam Smith, invisible hand, market forces
    self-interest, consumer sovereignty, competition, private ownership, profit motive
  • basic economic problems/questions
  • advantages/disadvantages of the market economy
  • causes of the Great Depression (pages 63-64 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • please see summary notes from the Ideologies textbook on the Mixed Economy Case Studies #14 (Sweden) and #15 (Canada), #16 (Japan), #17 (Fascism and Nazism): pages 73-76 in the study booklet
  • also see the Democratic Socialism booklet on Sweden (indicative planning, "cradle to the grave" economics/"womb to tomb economics"): pages 65-72 in 30-1 booklets
  • characteristics of a mixed economy
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • democratic socialism
  • welfare capitalism
  • Keynesian economics
  • the business cycle and fiscal and monetary policies (study all of the notes I gave you)
  • demand-side economics
  • neo-conservatives
  • monetarism
  • trickle down economics
  • supply-side economics
  • Thatcherism and Reaganomics
  • Milton Friedman
  • Friedrich Hayek
  • how Keynesian economics deals with a recession (remember "the percolator": increase circulation of money reducing taxes, increase government spending on "make work" projects, and reduce interest rates, which according to Keynesian economics is going increase demand for goods and services and lead to more money circulating in the economy) pages 81-82 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • how supply-side economics deals with a recession (remember "trickle down coffee maker": government should stimulate the goods and services sector of the economy by reducing corporate and personal taxes, eventually benefits will "trickle down" to the middle class and working class, make connections between supply-side economics and laissez faire economics/classical liberalism): pages 81-82 in the 30-1 booklet
  • advantages and disadvantages of a mixed economy
  • neo-conservative criticism of government intervention
  • characteristics of a centrally planned economy
  • advantages and disadvantages of a centrally planned economy
  • Marx notes (pages 94-96 in 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (pages 97-98 in 30-1 booklet)
  • establishment of the Soviet Union
  • Soviet economic system (top-down decision-making process): study pages 105-114 in the Social 30-1 booklet
  • Lenin's War Communism and the New Economic Policy
  • "Stalin and the Modernization of Russia" (see film notes)
  • Stalin notes (pages 99-101)
  • "Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin" notes (this bridges the gap between Stalin and Gorbachev): pages 116-117 in 30-1 booklet
  • Gorbachev to Collapse Notes: pages 118-121 in 30-1 booklet
  • Economic Planning in the USSR: pages 122-129 in 30-1 booklet
  • Market Socialism (pages 130-132 in the Social 30-1 booklet)


The Chapter 5 Test will be on Tuesday, October 28th. It is a 70 multiple choice question test. Please review the following:

  • "20th Century Rejections of Liberalism" (ppt)
  • Marx notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Stalin notes (see 30-1 booklet)
  • Soviet Economy notes
  • Soviet Economic System notes
  • Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin notes
  • Gorbachev to Collapse notes
  • Economic Planning in the USSR booklet
  • Characteristics of Democracy
  • Characteristics of Dictatorship
  • Democratic Systems notes
  • Non-Democratic Systems notes
  • Types of Dictatorships notes (includes Techniques of Dictatorships as well)
  • A Comparison of Communism and Fascism notes
  • Totalitarianism notes
  • Fascism/Nazism booklet (has techniques of dictatorship in Nazi Germany and USSR)
  • do a brief review of the political and economic spectrums

The following key concepts/key events/key people are mentioned in this test, if you (re-)familiarize yourself with them it will help you out immensely!

  • centrally planned economies
  • initiative
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • Reaganomics
  • consumer sovereignty
  • invisible hand
  • Keynesian economics
  • laissez faire economics
  • War Communism
  • Five Year Plans
  • mixed economies
  • indicative planning
  • proportional representation
  • democracy
  • dictatorship
  • political spectrum (characteristics associated with the various ideologies)
  • status quo
  • egalitarianism
  • conservative
  • reactionary
  • liberal
  • radical
  • SA
  • Hitler
  • Bolshevik
  • fascism
  • communism
  • indoctrination
  • controlled participation
  • terror and force
  • direction of popular discontent
  • democratic socialists
  • supply-side economics
  • authoritarian
  • tyrant
  • totalitarian
  • totalitarianism
  • ultranationalism
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • propaganda
  • progressive taxation
  • Marx
  • Lenin
  • utopian socialism
  • Gorbachev
  • martial law
  • Reichstag (Reichstag Fire, Reichstag election results)
  • referendum
  • collectivization
  • modernization
  • classical liberal
  • laissez faire free market economy
  • mixed economy
  • planned economy
  • (review your economic political quadrant model)
  • Das Kapital
  • Mein Kampf
  • The Wealth of Nations

I was able to finish off "The French Revolution" PowerPoint presentation that I started yesterday. Hopefully, we'll be able to start the History Channel documentary on the French Revolution tomorrow. I also collected your U.S. Constitution graphic novels today. You will have some assessments next week on the French Revolution, so please keep up with the material taught in class. It is also recommended that you visit this section of the IB 20 wiki to read other documents and information related to the French Revolution. I will be giving you a DBA assignment on the French Revolution tomorrow, it's a take-home assignment. In all likelihood, you will be writing a typical Alberta curriculum -1 style three source analysis assignment on the French Revolution next Wednesday.

Monday, October 20, 2014

October 20


I covered the concept of market socialism today. You can find the reading on this in your Social 30-1 study booklets on pages 130-133. I also taught you how to write the WRA I three source analysis assignments (pages 312-313 in the 30-1 study booklets). I gave you each three sample WRA I from Unit 2 material. I split the class into thirds, with each third tackling a different set of sources. We'll talk about each of the WRA I samples tomorrow. One week from today, on Monday, October 27th you will be writing your Unit 2 WRA I. Please remember that you are writing your Economic Systems Exam on Thursday, please check out the study guide below. I also talked about military spending briefly with each class, in part because we were talking about the Four Modernizations (one of which was modernization of national defence), and I said that the United States spends a tremendous amount of the federal budget. This video is old, but it illustrates the American military spending using Oreo cookies. The statistics used in the video are old, given that the USA spends about $600+ billion a year on their military, and China's military spending has increased to the point where the PRC now have the second highest military spending budget. Figures vary depending on the source you use, but by in large, the top 15 military spenders are as follows: USA, China, Russia, Saudi Arabia, UK, France, Japan, Germany, India, Brazil, South Korea, Australia, Italy, Israel, and Iran.


This exam will be written on Thursday, October 23rd. It is a multiple choice question format test.
This is a comprehensive exam that covers all of the major economic systems: market economy, mixed economy, and command economy. It is 70 multiple choice questions.
  • Chapters 3-6 in Perspectives on Ideology
  • study the applicable PowerPoint presentations that are on the wiki under Unit 2 (check your notes): The Development of Classical Liberalism, Responding to Classical Liberalism, The Evolution of Modern Liberalism, 20th Century Rejections of Liberalism (just the USSR section of this PowerPoint)
  • In Chapter 5, just focus on the Soviet Union, and left-wing of economic spectrum (command economy), we haven't covered aspects of dictatorships or Nazism yet (the techniques of dictatorship and fascism will be on a Chapter 5 Test)
  • please see the summary notes from the Ideologies textbook: Chapter 7 (Private Enterprise), page 78-80 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • supply-side economics (page 84 in study booklet)
  • boom and bust cycle/business cycle (pages 50-54 and pages 56-62 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • laws of supply and demand, Adam Smith, invisible hand, market forces
    self-interest, consumer sovereignty, competition, private ownership, profit motive
  • basic economic problems/questions
  • advantages/disadvantages of the market economy
  • causes of the Great Depression (pages 63-64 in 30-1 study booklet)
  • FDR and the New Deal
  • please see summary notes from the Ideologies textbook on the Mixed Economy Case Studies #14 (Sweden) and #15 (Canada), #16 (Japan), #17 (Fascism and Nazism): pages 73-76 in the study booklet
  • also see the Democratic Socialism booklet on Sweden (indicative planning, "cradle to the grave" economics/"womb to tomb economics"): pages 65-72 in 30-1 booklets
  • characteristics of a mixed economy
  • nationalization
  • privatization
  • democratic socialism
  • welfare capitalism
  • Keynesian economics
  • the business cycle and fiscal and monetary policies (study all of the notes I gave you)
  • demand-side economics
  • neo-conservatives
  • monetarism
  • trickle down economics
  • supply-side economics
  • Thatcherism and Reaganomics
  • Milton Friedman
  • Friedrich Hayek
  • how Keynesian economics deals with a recession (remember "the percolator": increase circulation of money reducing taxes, increase government spending on "make work" projects, and reduce interest rates, which according to Keynesian economics is going increase demand for goods and services and lead to more money circulating in the economy) pages 81-82 in the Social 30-1 study booklet 
  • how supply-side economics deals with a recession (remember "trickle down coffee maker": government should stimulate the goods and services sector of the economy by reducing corporate and personal taxes, eventually benefits will "trickle down" to the middle class and working class, make connections between supply-side economics and laissez faire economics/classical liberalism): pages 81-82 in the 30-1 booklet
  • advantages and disadvantages of a mixed economy
  • neo-conservative criticism of government intervention
  • characteristics of a centrally planned economy
  • advantages and disadvantages of a centrally planned economy
  • Marx notes (pages 94-96 in 30-1 booklet)
  • Lenin notes (pages 97-98 in 30-1 booklet)
  • establishment of the Soviet Union
  • Soviet economic system (top-down decision-making process): study pages 105-114 in the Social 30-1 booklet
  • Lenin's War Communism and the New Economic Policy
  • "Stalin and the Modernization of Russia" (see film notes)
  • Stalin notes (pages 99-101)
  • "Changes to Soviet Society After Stalin" notes (this bridges the gap between Stalin and Gorbachev): pages 116-117 in 30-1 booklet
  • Gorbachev to Collapse Notes: pages 118-121 in 30-1 booklet
  • Economic Planning in the USSR: pages 122-129 in 30-1 booklet
  • Market Socialism (pages 130-132 in the Social 30-1 booklet)



We started the French Revolution and Napoleonic Age unit. I started a PowerPoint lecture on the French Revolution and I covered up to the end of the causes of the revolution. We'll continue this tomorrow. I will collect your U.S. Constitution graphic novels tomorrow.